A chocolate chip cookie is a drop cookie that is distinguished by the presence of chocolate chips or chocolate morsels. Ruth Graves Wakefield first made chocolate chip cookies in the United States in 1938, when she broke up a Nestlé semi-sweet chocolate bar and incorporated the chopped chocolate into a cookie recipe.
In general, the dough is made up of flour, butter, brown and white sugar, semi-sweet chocolate chips, eggs, and vanilla extract. Other types of chocolate, as well as extra ingredients like almonds or oatmeal, can be added to the recipe. Vegan versions with required ingredient replacements, such as vegan chocolate chips, vegan margarine, and egg substitutes, are also available. Before adding chocolate chips, a chocolate chocolate chip cookie is made with a dough flavored with chocolate or cocoa powder. Depending on the combination of dough and chocolate kinds, these variations of the recipe are also known as ‘double’ or ‘triple’ chocolate chip cookies.
In 1938, American chefs Ruth Graves Wakefield and Sue Brides created the chocolate chip cookie. They came up with the recipe while she was the owner of the Toll House Inn in Whitman, Massachusetts. The Toll House Inn was a prominent restaurant in this era that served home food. According to legend, she created the cookie by mistake, expecting the chocolate chunks to melt and turn into chocolate cookies. That is not the case; Wakefield indicated that she created the cookie on purpose. “She stated,” she said “We were serving ice cream with a thin butterscotch nut biscuit. Everyone appeared to enjoy it, but I was attempting to provide them with something unique. As a result, I created the Toll House cookie. “She made a biscuit with cut-up crumbs from a Nestlé semi-sweet chocolate bar. “Toll House Chocolate Crunch Cookies” is the original recipe from Toll House Tried and True Recipes. Wakefield was compensated with a lifetime supply of Nestle chocolate in exchange for sharing her cookie recipe.
M. Barrows & Company, New York, originally published Wakefield’s cookbook, Toll House Tried and True Recipes, in 1936. The recipe “Toll House Chocolate Crunch Cookie,” which quickly became a favorite cookie in American families, was originally included in the 1938 edition of the cookbook.
The original recipe was passed down to Sue Brides’ daughter, Peg. In a 2017 interview, she shared the original recipe:
- 1+1⁄2 cups (350 mL) shortening
- 1+1⁄8 cups (265 mL) sugar
- 1+1⁄8 cups (265 mL) brown sugar
- 3 eggs
- 1+1⁄2 teaspoon (7.5 g) salt
- 3+1⁄8 cups (750 mL) of flour
- 1+1⁄2 teaspoon (7.5 g) hot water
- 1+1⁄2 teaspoon (7.5 g) baking soda
- 1+1⁄2 teaspoon (7.5 g) vanilla
- chocolate chips (The Tried and True Recipes cookbook specifies “2 bars (7 oz.) Nestlé’s yellow label chocolate, semi-sweet, which has been cut in pieces the size of a pea.”).
Freshly baked chocolate chip cookies are sold in shopping malls and standalone retail outlets by at least three national (US/North America) brands. [requires citation] To set themselves apart from the competitors, a number of enterprises, notably Doubletree hotels, offer freshly baked cookies to their customers.
After a third-grade class from Somerset, Massachusetts recommended it, Massachusetts named the chocolate chip cookie as the Official State Cookie on July 9, 1997, to honor the cookie’s creation in the state.
Composition and variants
White sugar, brown sugar, flour, salt, eggs, a leavening agent like baking soda, fat, usually butter or shortening, vanilla extract, and chocolate bits are widely used in chocolate chip cookies. In certain recipes, the dough sometimes includes milk or nuts (such as chopped walnuts).
Some recipes generate a soft, chewy cookie, while others produce a crunchy, crispy cookie, depending on the component ratios, combining, and cooking times. The technique for creating the cookie is generally the same in all recipes, regardless of the ingredients: To begin, cream the sugars and fat together with a wooden spoon or an electric mixer. After that, the flour and leavening agent are added, followed by the eggs and vanilla essence. The sort of additional flavoring will dictate how it is added to the mix: peanut butter will go in with the wet components, while cocoa powder will go in with the dry ingredients. To avoid breaking, the main component, chocolate chips, as well as nuts, are usually added near the end of the process, just before the cookies are scooped and placed on a cookie sheet. The majority of cookie dough is baked, though some people eat it raw or mix it with vanilla ice cream to make chocolate chip cookie dough ice cream.
A chocolate chip cookie’s texture is mostly determined by the fat content and type of fat utilized. According to a study conducted by Kansas State University, carbohydrate-based fat substitutes bind more water, leaving less water available to aid in cookie spread during baking, resulting in softer, cakelike cookies with less spread.